Die Auswirkungen eines Slacklinetrainings auf die posturale Kontrolle und die Kraft von Sportstudierenden
Background: Deficits in postural control and muscle imbalance and/or weakness result in increased sports injury incidence rate. A systematic sensorimotor training (SMT) can bring a lot to improve the two risk factors. A specific type of SMT, the so-called slackline training, may have great potential to promote balance and strength performance. However, to the author`s knowledge, there is no study available about slacklining. Aim: The objecive of this study was to examine the impact of slackline training and detraining on variables of postural control, jumping height, strength and rate of force development (RFD) of lower extremity muscles in young sportstudents. Methodology: Twenty-seven young healthy sportstudents (age 23.4 ± 3.9 yrs) without any slackline or SMT experience were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 13) or the control group (n = 14). The intervention group participated in 4 weeks of slackline training, whereas the control group did not receive any intervention. The pre, post and follow-up tests included the measurement of (a) total displacement of the centre of pressure during one-legged stance on a balance platform (GKS 1000®) under static conditions, under dynamic conditions and under dynamic conditions during the compensation of a perturbation impulse, (b) jumping height on a force platform (Quattro Jump®) and (c) maximal torque and RFD of lower extremity muscles on an isokinetic device (Isomed 2000). Results: Statistically significant training-induced improvements were found for RFD (p < 0,01) in the intervention group, whereas no significant interaction effects were observed for variables of static/dynamic postural control, jumping height and maximal torque. After the withdrawal of the training stimulus, the RFD remained well above the baseline value (p < 0,05) and showed its lasting effect. The control group did not show significant change. Conclusion: This study presents improved RFD-values after 4 weeks of slackline training. Given that the promotion of balance and strength is important for injury prevention, training-induced changes in RFD alone might not be sufficient to produce an injury-preventive effect. Keywords: Balance, strength, postural control, slackline, rate of force development, GKS 1000®, Isomed 2000, Quattro Jump®.